Monday, August 24, 2020
The job of innovation - Research Proposal Example As indicated by him it is the main thrust behind the significant social and social adjustments. This paper tries to assess the different innovative elements that influence a lot in adjusting the social structure and social patterns. The features where these variables bring clear change are additionally distinguished and investigated and talked about in this examination. Culture doesn't have a severe definition. It is fairly to a greater extent an idea which characterizes the aggregate practices, discernments and doings of people comprising a social gathering. The greatness of a social gathering while at the same time characterizing society differs to all degrees. It may be a culture inside an association, a city/town or an entire country. What holds significance is the shared conviction that brings forth a specific pattern in culture. Be that as it may, the patterns and expansion of culture isn't the purpose of significance here. What this paper endeavors to assess is that how changes are acquired a culture and what are the channels which bring these progressions too the aspects where these progressions are felt the most. We can follow the impacts of innovation on culture through history yet the investigation concentrates the impact of innovation on culture in the present situation. Web, email, TV and cell phones are a portion of the viewpoints that have reformed the manner in which we think, act and live our lives in the previous scarcely any decades. Presently man is not any more limited by constraint in any feature of life. He has gain admittance to wherever, individual or occurring since things presently are only a couple of snaps away and simple to approach. These innovations were simply not insignificant manifestations which would have been completely supplanted by some other thing later on. Then again, they have formed into mediums which are presently acquiring vigorously from even the smallest of social patterns and social needs. These innovations have advanced and created themselves to be apparatuses which have their own self winning instruments. They tune themselves towards the requirements of the general population and boomerang them back to the general public in the wake of infusing them with self figured systems. The effect of web in reshaping our social and common lives has been tremendously bantered by L. Siegel (2009) in his neutralize the Machine: How the Web Is Reshaping Culture and Commerce: And Why It Matters. He remarks that everything from consistently living to shopping and business has been altered itself as indicated by the web. Results and Discussions The advanced innovation has gotten a handle on us all such that we can not pick to live outside its circle. Singular freedom alongside information and mindfulness has significantly expanded. The speed and exactness for things have strikingly expanded alongside the simplicity in taking care of stuff. On a general level, individuals are turning out to be increasingly more distanced from social groupings and getting kept to their own zones. Every individual is furnished and busy with his own virtual world and ongoing association and activities have
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Terry Hill, an educator at Oxford University contends that the standards required in the commercial center (and recognized by showcasing) can be isolated into two gatherings: Ã¢Å¾ ¢ A request qualifier is an attribute of an item or administration that is required all together for the item/administration to try and be considered by a client. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ A request champ is a trademark that will win the offer or customerÃ¢â¬â¢s buy. Request victors and qualifiers are both market-explicit and time-explicit. We will compose a custom paper test on Terry Hill or then again any comparative theme just for you Request Now They work in various blends in various ways on various markets and with various clients. While, some broad patterns exist across business sectors, these may not be steady after some time. Request Qualifier: Incase of phone organization the fundamental goal is to guarantee appropriate correspondence. In this division a portion of the request qualifiers are Grameenphone, Robi, Citycell, Banglalink, Teletalk, Warid. Request Winner: An Order victor basis relies upon the expense of the item, item quality and dependability, or any of different measurements grew before. In our nation Citycell (Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited) is the primary portable interchanges organization (since 1989) of Bangladesh. Thus it got a few needs in that time. Be that as it may, when GP (Grameephone) came into advertise in 1997 it turned into the request victor on account of its solid and reliabile arrange. Grameenphone was the principal organization to present GSM innovation in Bangladesh. It additionally settled the initial 24-hour Call Center to help its endorsers. It has now in excess of 28 million endorsers (as of October 2010). Starting at July, 2008 Citycell has 1.67 million supporters. Remember that the request winning and request qualifying measures may change after some time. Educator Hill expresses that a firm should re-qualify the request qualifiers consistently it is ready to go. The most effective method to refer to Terry Hill, Essay models
Thursday, July 23, 2020
11 Ways to Stop Companies from Ripping Off Your Invention As an entrepreneur seeking to grow your business or make money from your invention, there is a very high chance that you will need to pitch your idea to someone if you want your business to grow.For many such entrepreneurs, the possibility of your idea or invention being stolen is a huge concern, especially if your idea is something that creates a huge market advantage.This places many entrepreneurs in a catch 22 situation: on the one hand, you need to bring another company â" such as a manufacturer, investor, or distributor â" aboard to help you bring your product to market, else you will not make any money off your idea.On the other hand, there is the risk that the person you are pitching your idea to could snatch the idea and implement it without paying you any royalties.This has happened to many young and naÃ¯ve entrepreneurs.They go out and pitch their innovative ideas to companies they hope to work with, only to have their ideas rejected.A few weeks or months later, the same companies that rejected their ideas roll out products or services that are amazingly similar to the concept they rejected.There are several cases where innovators had their idea stolen after pitching it to someone they wanted to help them bring their product to market.Perhaps the most famous such incident is one that led to the founding of the worldâs largest social media giant, Facebook.Apparently, three of Zuckerbergâs schoolmates, Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss and Divya Narenda, approached Zuckerberg and asked him to develop a social media site for them.Zuckerberg, however, refused to work for them, but he went ahead to create a website similar to what they had described to him, which he named Facebook.This even led to a lawsuit that saw the Winklevoss twins receive a $65 million settlement.In yet another similar case, a guy known as David Wawrzynski came up with a design for a condiment container that made it possible for people to either dip or squeeze their sauce.Eager to m ake money off his invention, David went and pitched his idea to Heinz, the sauce giants.After showing some initial interest in the design, Heinz later told David that his design was not commercially viable.A few months later, Heinz released an almost similar condiment container, leading to the inventor suing them for stealing his idea.Stealing of ideas is not a new thing either. In 1964, an inventor known as Robert Kearns came up with designs for the intermittent windscreen wiper, an invention that gave drives better visibility by cleaning the windscreen every few seconds instead of doing it continuously.Like the other inventors mentioned above, Kearns had to pitch his idea to someone if he was to make some money from it.In this case, he pitched his design to three big automobile companies: Chrysler, General Motors, and Ford. All of them showed no interest in his idea.However, shortly after, all three made implemented the intermittent windscreen wipers in their cars. Kearns eventual ly sued Ford and Chrysler and won.As the above stories show, people and companies you pitch your ideas and inventions to are not your friends.Some of them will try to work around you and make money off your ideas while leaving you out in the cold, and therefore you need to be cautious when engaging them.Below, we look at 11 ways to stop companies from ripping off your idea or invention. DONâT SHARE YOUR INVENTION WITH JUST ANYONESocial media has become a major part of our lives today.People routinely use social media to share their thoughts, express their love to their partners, wish their friends happy birthdays, sell items they no longer need, find something they are looking for, look for jobs, showcase their expertise in something, find love, and so on.With so much dependency on social media, it is not unimaginable that some people will think of sharing their awesome invention or idea on social media with the hope that the right person to help them bring the invention to market will find them.Donât fall into this temptation.The risks that come with sharing your invention or idea on social media far outweigh any potential benefits. In other words, there is a higher likelihood of someone stealing your idea off social media than of finding someone who will help you implement your idea.In addition, sharing your idea or invention on social media might also nullify any intellectual property rights you hold over your invention.For instance, by using Facebook, you automatically agree to Facebookâs âStatement of Rights and Responsibility.âPart of this statement states that by posting any content that is covered by intellectual property rights on the website, you grant Facebook ânon-exclusive, sub-licensable, transferrable, royalty-free worldwide licenseâ to use the content as they so wish.In other words, Facebook can copy, use, modify, distribute, display, or create derivative works from your intellectual property.They can do this until you delete the content, provided the content was not shared with other people.By posting your idea or invention on social media, you are basically ceding your rights to the idea.Aside from social media, you should also be very careful with the people you share your idea with in real life. Not everyone within your circles is interested in whatâs best for you.The person you think is your friend can easily steal your idea and find someone to help them implement it.Therefore, if you are not considering partnering with someone to help bring your invention to reality, or if a person is not going to help you improve your invention in any way, donât tell them about it.DONâT REVEAL TOO MUCHOf course, if you want to make money from your invention, you have to tell someone about it â" you might want an investor to provide you with capital, a manufacturer to help you produce it, or someone you are interested in licensing the invention to.You have to share some details of your idea with these people, bu t this is not a guarantee that they will actually agree to partner with you.To protect yourself in case they do not buy into your invention, donât reveal too much information about your invention.So, how do you keep the important information to yourself while still managing to show the worth of your invention and convincing them to take a financial risk in the invention?A good approach is to talk about the problem your invention or idea solves and show them why this invention or idea is potentially profitable, while keeping the details of how it works to yourself.If they are interested after you show what problem it solves and its potential profitability, it becomes easier to get them to sign a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) before you reveal the technical details.APPLY FOR A PROVISIONAL PATENTAfter coming up with a new invention, the best way to protect the invention is to get a patent for the invention.However, there are two major problems with this approach.First, patent applic ations are a costly affair. For a creative or entrepreneur without the cash to your invention to market, applying for a patent might also be outside your budget.Second, it might take quite some time before your application gets approved. The workaround for this is to apply for a provisional patent.The provisional patent is a lot less costly, you donât have to wait years before your patent is approved, and allows you to protect your invention or idea up to a period of 12 months.It is good to note that there is no option of renewing the provisional patent after the 12 months.You need to have filed for a non-provisional patent within that period, or else the patent pending status of your invention will expire, and someone else can file a patent for the same idea.So, whatâs the benefit of filing for a provisional patent? When you apply for a provisional patent before disclosing your invention to a potential investor, they cannot commercialize the invention, since they would then be infringing on your provisional patent.In addition, having a provisional patent shows anyone thinking of ripping off your invention that you are serious about protecting your legal rights to your invention.When filing for a provisional patent, include detailed information about your invention, including its technical details, how it works, what its benefits are, and so on.UNDERSTAND THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LANDSCAPE IN YOUR FIELDIf you intend to file for a provisional patent for your invention, you need to do a research of all patents around your invention and try to identify what makes your invention different from any other existing patents.Without such a differentiation, your patent application can be easily rejected on the argument that there is prior art, which means that there is evidence that your invention is not something new.However, even if there are other similar inventions, there has to be something that has kept them from making it to the market.If you identify what m akes your invention different from other similar inventions, you can make this point of difference the basis of your patent application or intellectual property.USE A NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENTA non-disclosure agreement is another great way of protecting your invention before you reveal any details about the invention to investors, associates, workers, or anyone else you might be partnering with to implement your invention.Like the name suggests, the non-disclosure agreement bars anyone who has signed it from disclosing any of the information contained in whatever is covered by the agreement.After signing a non-disclosure agreement, if a person later goes on and uses the information pertaining to your invention without your authorization, you can take them to court and sue for damages.A non-disclosure agreement is legal contract like any other.An NDA also provides grounds for arbitration in case of a dispute.When settling disputes arising from a stolen invention or idea, an arbitratio n is the best course of action, since it is a confidential process.If the case were to be settled in a standard litigation, you would have to reveal information about your invention to an open court, which beats the purpose of the whole process.If you share the general details of your invention as we discussed in step 2 above and they request for the technical details of your invention, you can have them sign the NDA.When it comes to this, one mistake I see a lot of people making is to find non-disclosure agreement templates on the internet and use them as the basis of their own agreement. Donât do this.Find a licensing attorney and have them draft an agreement that will cover your specific needs. Ensure that the NDA covers your invention as well as any improvements to the invention, or any reverse engineering to the invention.While the format of a non-disclosure agreement might vary, most of them contain three main elements:A definition of what constitutes confidential informatio n: The NDA should define what information pertaining to your invention or idea should be considered as confidential or trade secrets. The non-disclosure agreement should also spell out any information that is not covered protected by the agreement, which means that the receiving party is under no obligation not to use the information or to keep it to themselves. Any information that was created or discovered before the company got involved with you is not covered by an NDA. Only information that is specific to your invention or idea should be treated as confidential.Obligations of the receiving party: The NDA should also describe what is expected of the party receiving the information, after the information is shared with them. In most cases, the NDA places the receiving party under obligation to hold the information in confidence. It also places restrictions on how the receiving party can use the information. In most cases, a company that has already consented to signing an NDA won ât have any problem with the obligations set out by the NDA.Applicable time periods: An NDA should also define the length of time during which the information should be kept confidential. In most cases, the appropriate length of time is reached through a negotiation, because each party has different interests. The disclosing party will usually want the information to remain confidential for a long period of time, while the receiving party will want the period to be short. A common applicable period within the United States is five years, though some companies might try to bring it down to two or three years. In Europe, the applicable time period might be as much as a decade.Itâs good to note that some investors might not be interested in signing a non-disclosure agreement.Since investors come across a great deal of ideas and pitches, some of them might not want to expose themselves to lawsuits in case someone else approaches them with an idea or invention that is similar to your s.Considering the balance of power is in their favor, sometimes you might be forced to share the details of your invention without them signing any NDA.RESEARCH THE RECIPIENTSWe have already seen that not all potential investors or clients will be willing to sign an NDA with you.To try and protect your idea as much as possible when you have no legal mechanism protecting you, you need to research your potential investors or clients and try to determine whether they are the kind of person/company that would try to rip you off.When researching them, ask yourself questions like: What is their reputation when it comes to dealing with inventors?Do they have any current or past disputes with their business partners?Are there any complaints from people who have previously worked with them?If you come across some red flags when conducting your research, it might be a wise to avoid getting involved with them.OUT-THINK THEMSomeone who is interested in stealing your idea will try to do it even when you have put in place legal mechanisms â" such as provisional patents â" to protect yourself.Therefore, if you want to minimize the chances of your idea getting stolen, you need to identify any loop holes that others might exploit.If you wanted to steal your invention from yourself, how would you do it?If you identify any loop holes that might be used to steal the invention from you, file additional provisional patents to cover these loop holes as well.For instance, if you can go around your current provisional patent by changing the material used in your invention, file an additional provisional patent covering other materials that might be used to produce a similar product.Sometimes, you might even need to hire a special engineer to help you determine ways that people can work around your patents.However, this will strengthen your provisional patents and make it much harder for others to steal your idea.FILE FOR A COPYRIGHT CERTIFICATESometimes, whatever you want to share w ith an investor might not be a physical invention, but rather an original idea or an artistic work, such as a dramatic, literary or musical work, a novel, script, poetry, computer software, architectural concept, and so on.While you wonât be able to get a patent on such, you can still protect them by filing for copyright protection.To get a copyright certificate issued, you have to set whatever you came up with in tangible form.For instance, if you came up with an idea for a novel, you have to create a manuscript for the novel in order to be issued with a copyright certificate.Once that is done, no one has the right to reproduce or use your work without your authorization.Note that you wonât receive a copyright certificate on an idea that has not been put in tangible form.DOCUMENT EVERYTHINGDocumentation is always a very important step when you are dealing with anyone who is interested in your invention or innovative idea.If you have a meeting with them, get a copy of the minute s of everything that was discussed in the meeting, or take down notes of everything that is discussed.If you discuss anything on phone, follow up with an email detailing everything you discussed.If you provide any documents to them, note down what documents were handed over and the exact date and time that this was done.This helps you create a paper trail that can come in handy in case there is an infringement dispute that requires you to go to court.FIND A GOOD ATTORNEY TO HELP YOU WITH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYWhile you can navigate the process of getting legal protection for your intellectual property by yourself, it is far much better to find a good attorney to help you with the process.Not only does this make the whole process easier, it also ensures that there are no loop holes left for unscrupulous companies and investors to take advantage of and go around your legal protection mechanisms.If possible, find an attorney who specializes in your field, and one who has a proven track record of getting patents issued.FOLLOW YOUR INSTINCTSSometimes, despite all your best efforts to protect yourself from people who might be planning to rip off your idea or invention, you might still feel your instincts warning you not to trust the person or company.Very often, our instincts are right, and if you feel your alarm bells going off whenever you think of working with or partnering with that person or company, it might be wise to listen to them.As the saying goes, better safe than sorry.Of course, the more experienced you get, the easier it will become for you to distinguish those who are genuinely interested in investing in your invention or idea from those who are only trying to rip you off.WRAPPING UPWhile the odds of someone you are pitching to stealing and commercializing your idea or invention are not very high, this does not mean that it cannot happen.Therefore, it is a lot better to take steps to protect your invention rather than go in solely on trust, only for s omeone to steal your idea and leave you with no recourse.If you are concerned about someone ripping off you invention, the strategies discussed above will help protect you and give a little peace of mind as you look for potential investors and partners.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Fatoumata Barry Kimberly Swanigan ENSL 1102 2nd April 2015 Death of a Salesman In Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is a domestic tragedy that focuses on the LomanÃ¢â¬â¢ dysfunctional family. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach in this story is to define tragedy through the Loman familyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to distinguish reality from illusion, and especially the father Willy Loman whoÃ¢â¬â¢s caught up in this fantasy world he created for him and his family. This tragic flaw will lead him to his death and make him miserable in the last few hours of his life. These illusions he created in his head will make it seem like they are destined for greatness, which leads to him putting too much pressure on his first born son Biff. His relationship with Biff deteriorates little by little because of what he expects from him. He has a difficult time earning his sonÃ¢â¬â¢ respect and being a role model to him because of his actions. However, he is concerned about his relationship to his son Biff because it will mean that he failed as a fat her; and therefore the reason for his concern is that heÃ¢â¬â¢s in denial, he feels responsible for his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s failure, and he failed to accomplish the american dream. Willy Loman struggles to accept his situation due to his misconception of him being someone greater than who he really is, and denies the reality. The Loman family is living in denial except Linda who goes along with it just to make her husband not feel like heÃ¢â¬â¢s going insane. Willy is not willing to accept that he is notShow MoreRelatedDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican play-write Arthur Miller, is undoubtedly Death of a Salesman. Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1949 at the time when America was evolving into an economic powerhouse. Arthur Miller critiques the system of capitalism and he also tells of the reality of the American Dream. Not only does he do these things, but he brings to light the idea of the dysfunctional family. Death of a Salesman is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s saddest tragedies. In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Death of a Salesman, three major eventsRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ is a play written by Arthur Miller in the year 1949. The play revolves around a desperate salesman, Willy Loman. Loman is delusioned and most of the things he does make him to appear as a man who is living in his own world away from other people. He is disturbed by the fact that he cannot let go his former self. His wife Linda is sad and lonely; his youngest son Biff is presented as a swinger/player while his eldest son Happy appears anti-business and confused by the behaviorRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrepresents a character with a tragic flaw leading to his downfall. In addition, in traditional tragedy, the main character falls from high authority and often it is predetermined by fate, while the audience experiences catharsis (Bloom 2). A rthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play Death of a Salesman is considered to be a tragedy because this literary work has some of the main characteristics of the tragedy genre. In this play, the main character Willy Loman possesses such traits and behaviors that lead to his downfall, and theRead MoreDeath of Salesman by Arthur Miller972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the play Death of a Salesman by the playwright Arthur Miller, the use of names is significant to the characters themselves. Many playwrights and authors use names in their works to make a connection between the reader and the main idea of their work. Arthur Miller uses names in this play extraordinarily. Not only does Miller use the names to get readers to correlate them with the main idea of the play, but he also uses names to provide some irony to the play. Miller uses the meanings of someRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArthur Miller wrote the Pulitzer Prize winning play Death of a Salesman in 194 9. The play inflated the myth of the American Dream of prosperity and recognition, that hard work and integrity brings, but the play compels the world to see the ugly truth that capitalism and the materialistic world distort honesty and moral ethics. The play is a guide toward contemporary themes foreseen of the twentieth century, which are veiled with greed, power, and betrayal. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s influence with the play spreadRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a Salesman can be described as modern tragedy portraying the remaining days in the life of Willy Loman. This story is very complex, not only because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s use of past and present, but because of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s lies that have continued to spiral out of control throughout his life. Arthur Miller puts a modern twist on AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of ancient Greek tragedy when Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s life story directly identifies the fatal flaw of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ . Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic flaw can be recappedRead MoreThe Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Dime a Dozen The Death of a Salesman is a tragedy written by playwright Arthur Miller and told in the third person limited view. The play involves four main characters, Biff, Happy, Linda, and Willy Loman, an ordinary family trying to live the American Dream. Throughout the play however, the family begins to show that through their endeavors to live the American Dream, they are only hurting their selves. The play begins by hinting at WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s suicidal attempts as the play begins with Linda askingRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller Essay2538 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesSurname 1 McCain StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: Course: Date: Death of a Salesman Death of a salesman is a literature play written by American author Arthur Miller. The play was first published in the year 1949 and premiered on Broadway in the same year. Since then, it has had several performances. It has also received a lot of accordances and won numerous awards for its literature merit including the coveted Pulitzer for drama. The play is regarded by many critics as the perfectRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller2081 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages#1 Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is a tragedy, this play has only two acts and does not include scenes in the acts. Instead of cutting from scene to scene, there is a description of how the lighting focuses on a different place or time-period, which from there, they continue on in a different setting. The play doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go in chronological order. A lot of the play is present in WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s flashbacks or memories of events. This provides an explanation of why the characters are acting a certainRead MoreDeath Of Salesman By Arthur Miller1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto death to achieve their so- called American dream. They live alone and there is no love of parents and siblings. They may have not noticed the America dream costs them so much, which will cause a bigger regret later. In the play Death of Salesman, Arthur Miller brings a great story of a man who is at very older age and still works hard to achieve his desire, which is the American dream. Later, he no tices that his youth is gone and there is less energy in his body. Willy Loman is a salesman, who
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Corporate Finance in the age of Thinking Computers. Just like humans, computers can now learn and adapt, thanks to machine learning, a subfield in AI. With artificial neural networks to mimic those of the human brain, intelligent computers can learn from examples, meaning that no task specific programming is required. While machine learning technology is still at infant stages in most industries, it is making ground breaking milestones in the financial sector. Among the areas experiencing major transformations is corporate finance. AI, in general, has been proliferating in the financial sector, with a study by Oxford Economics showing high reception among financial executives. The study, which involved 1500 financial executivesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦With the high volatility in todays global economy and regulatory environment, financial executives need to move beyond the traditional annual budget cycle if they are to make well-informed decisions. Machine Learning has ensured this by making it possible to analyze huge chunks of data within split second, learn from it, and provide highly accurate real time information for decision making. Brown also notes that AI relies on live, integrated business data and therefore financial managers can leverage of information from other departments in a firm when making decisions. For instance, through the technology, financial managers can monitor how consumers are responding to a new product and update projections correspondingly. Similarly, the financial team can take advantage of the data from the human resource to identify compensation strategies that ensure employee retention and reduces turnover. In other words, automation through AI enables CFOs and other financial managers to get data insights from marketing, human resource, supply chain, and RD, for better financial decision making. Even better is the fact that through machine learning, the financial systems in a firm keep improving themselves to accommodate even the tiniest changes in data. AI and machine learning also have a significant role to play in helping companies meet regulatory and compliance requirements at a lower cost. As Steve Culp of AccentureShow MoreRelatedCorporate Finance Essay1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCorporate Finance Essay Most corporate financing decisions in practice reduce to a choice between debt and equity. The finance manager wishing to fund a new project, but reluctant to cut dividends or to make a rights issue, which leads to the decision of borrowing options. The issue with regards to shareholder objectives being met by the management in making financing decisions has come to become a major issue of recent times. This relates to understanding the concept of the agency problem. It dealsRead MoreCorporate Finance Essay1908 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSample Test_MT2_FINA 3101_summer_2013 ____ 1. Travis Corp.s bonds currently sell for $1,050. They have an 8% annual coupon rate and a 20-year maturity, but they can be called in 5 years at $1,120. Assume that no costs other than the call premium would be incurred to call and refund the bonds, and also assume that the yield curve is horizontal, with rates expected to remain at current levels on into the future. Under these conditions, what rate of return should an investor expect to earn ifRead MoreCorporate Finance Essay959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTo start any business activities in an organization or a group of it calls for the managers to decide on how to finance the whole project execution; managers are compelled to seek consultative meetings from which a lot of thoughts and strategic plans are laid down systematically. To start the business, owners or shareholders are required to make a choice and put attention to the existing multiple and differing financing options, terms, and conditions that require contractual ar rangements. It is,Read MoreEssay Corporate Finance1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Why is corporate finance important to all managers? Corporate finance is a specific area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools as well as analyses used to make these decisions. The primary goal of corporate finance is to enhance corporate value, without taking excessive financial risks. A corporations managements primary responsibility is to maximize the shareholders wealth which translates to stock price maximization. Corporate finance providesRead MoreCorporate Finance Essays7800 Words Ã |Ã 32 PagesABCÃ¢â¬â¢s capital expenditures and its financing 9 2.3. Comparison of ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure with similar companies 10 2.4. Characteristics of the company influencing the leverage policy 11 2.4.1. Tax advantage 11 2.4.2. Corporate tax rate 11 2.4.3. Earnings before tax and interest 11 2.4.4. Interest rate 11 2.4.5. Credit rating 12 2.5. Pecking order theory 13 2.6. Optimal capital structure 13 3.Dividend 14 3.1. Dividend policyRead MoreEssay on The Bible And Corporate Finance2064 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ The Bible and Corporate Finance People rarely associate religion with the business world or the finance industry, nor do they think religion can guide the practice.Ã From a logical standpoint religion and a firms operations do not correlate. From a societal view people see good religious peoples businesses fail while godless industries thrive.Ã The question usually asked is how does the Bible apply to business world?Ã The real question should be how could the Bible and God guide me in my professionRead MoreCorporate Finance Essay examples4203 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pages7*:(*$11-885A13*.--+-*$3-).$).$2-*@3B%-)5*$%-23%4-)52-)23?+$*$)*+*2@-+93)-4+*-=7-$ 4226 | Monmouth, Inc. 10 Exhibit 7 Information on United States Capital Markets I.! Interest Rates in May 2003 30-Year U.S. U.S. Corporate Bonds Rated Treasury Bonds AA A BBB BB 4.10% 4.52% 5.07% 6.07% 7.96% II.! Estimated Market Risk Premium = 6% over 30-Year U.S. Treasury Bonds III.! Median Values of Key Ratios by Standard PoorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Rating Category AAA AA A BBB BB B Times InterestRead MoreEMI Corporate Finance Essay7263 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"IFPI: 07 Digital Music Report,Ã¢â¬ January 2007. This case was written by Elizabeth W. Shumadine (MBA Ã¢â¬â¢01), under the supervision of Professor Michael J. Schill, based on public information. Funding was provided by the L. White Matthews Fund for Finance case writing. Copyright Ã © 2008 by the University of Virginia Darden School Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. To order copies, send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. No part of this publication may be reproduced,Read Moreprinciple of corporate finance solution Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿CHAPTER 2 How to Calculate Present Values Answers to Problem Sets 1. If the discount factor is .507, then .507*1.126 = $1 2. 125/139 = .899 3. PV = 374/(1.09)9 = 172.20 4. PV = 432/1.15 + 137/(1.152) + 797/(1.153) = 376 + 104 + 524 = $1,003 5. FV = 100*1.158 = $305.90 6. NPV = -1,548 + 138/.09 = -14.67 (cost today plus the present value of the perpetuity) 7. PV = 4/(.14-.04) = $40 8. a. PV = 1/.10 = $10 b. Since the perpetuityRead MoreCorporate Finance Exam Mba Essay3200 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesover other types of firms. One of them is the unlimited liability.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: | Ã False | Correct Answer: | Ã False | | | | | * Question 4 1 out of 1 points | | | Two important financing decisions for a corporate financial manager are debt policy decision and dividend policy decision. Debt policy asks what level of debt is best for the firm. The dividend policy asks what dividend payout ratio is best for the firm.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
C. S Lewis wrote the novel The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe initially for his Goddaughter in order to keep her in touch with Christianity. What Lewis did not realize is that many adults would also enjoy the fantasy childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s novel as well. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe or any similar topic only for you Order Now The narrative is filled with mythical creatures, humorous moments, and suspenseful situations. Although many events and characters seem improbable, the four children in the bookÃ¢â¬âPeter, Susan, Edmund, and LucyÃ¢â¬âare realistically portrayed as well-rounded characters with individual strengths and faults. Although the novel is recognized as a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasy book, it is also popular with adults as the story contains bits of modern culture, vivid descriptions of violence and is heavy on Christian allegory. As much as the readers enjoy the magical land of Narnia, 21st century life is not exactly full of Dryads, Naiads and Fauns frolicking and feasting in the summer woods. By contrast, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasy novels, not every injustice is punished, and not all the good people live happily ever after: some of them die, because that is reality. Between school shootings, gang violence and child abuse is seems as though reality is thousands of miles away from the fantasy of complete and total justice in Narnia. What readers of all ages can relate to, however, is betrayal. For example, spouses who cheat, employees who steal from their employers, and friends who tell lies. This modern idea of betrayal is where readers from any age can relate to the novel. In the narrative, EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s first betrayal is a small but unpleasant one: Ã¢â¬Å"Up to that moment Edmund had been feeling sick, and sulky, and annoyed with Lucy for being right, but he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t made up his mind what to do. When Peter suddenly asked him the question he decided all at once to do the meanest and most spiteful thing he could think of. He decided to let Lucy downÃ¢â¬ (Lewis 48). Edmund lies about his trip to Narnia in order to make himself look superior in the eyes of his older siblings. This small cruelty will pave the way for his greater betrayal further in the story. Readers of any age can connect with the modern culture of betrayal in the novel, where minimal details are explored that over time lead to Edmund turning his back on his siblings. This novel features an odd mix of childish adventure and bloody battles. Young children who read this story enjoy the fairy-tale aspects, while older readers can appreciate the repetition of scenes in which the children are often comforted by the sudden availability of tea, and the way the forces of good seem to always outweigh the evil. The use of violence throughout the novel deals strictly with fantasy for children, where it is mainly used for excitement. On the other hand, for older readers the violence in the novel can be seen as consequential where extreme force is used as simply last resort. For example, as the head of the forces of evil, the White Witch is not playing a long hand when she exclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"Summon all our people to meet me here as speedily as they can. Call out the giants and the werewolves and the spirits of those trees who are on our side. Call the Ghouls, and the Boggles, the Ogres and the Minotaurs. Call the Cruels, the Hags, the Spectres, and the people of the Toadstools. We will fightÃ¢â¬ (Lewis 149) There are many different creatures in Narnia that follow the White Witch and she merely acts as their stone cold captain. This quote explores evil where it is not an isolated incident in Narnia Ã¢â¬â it is the idea of violence and commands a great deal of power. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe functions as a spiritual allegory where one does not have to be too familiar with the Bible to recognize some of the key characters and themes. Without doubt, Aslan represents Jesus Christ, and also God himself, whereas the White Witch represents Satan. Narnia, where the adventure happens, visibly represents the Kingdom of God. Clearly there is no direct retelling of any of the Bible stories; however, readers can find elements taken and redistributed for younger readers. In addition, having this biblical reality come to life is important to ensure a committed Christian lifestyle not only for children, but also for adults. For instance, when Edmund arrives in Narnia alone, he immediately meets the White Witch where he is tempted with the enchanted Turkish Delight and the promise of becoming a prince of Narnia. The White Witch explains to Edmund, Ã¢â¬Å"I think I would like to make you the Prince Ã¢â¬â some day, when you bring the others to visit meÃ¢â¬ (Lewis 40). Succumbing to temptation is a very powerful theme in the Bible, where Jesus is tempted by Satan in the wilderness with promises of great power. Not only does Lewis restate certain events in the life of Jesus in a context that is easy to understand, most importantly, readers of all ages can both relate to and enjoy the fantasy of Narnia. An understanding of the modern reality, use of violence and Biblical allegory in the novel is essential in satisfying both younger and older readers. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe has already established itself as a timeless novel that appeals to both the atheists and Christians, the uneducated and to scholars, and lastly to children and adults. In addition to being a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasy book, it is an adventure story in which the heroes set out on a quest to recover their kidnapped friend and end up ruling the land. An analysis of this narrative, however, allows readers of any age to fully appreciate LewisÃ¢â¬â¢ unique gift to simplify complex ideas and craft beautiful childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasies. Thus, this allows the reader of any age group to gain a deeper understanding of Lewis as a skilled creative writer and a deeper satisfaction of his artwork, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. How to cite The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Baptism: The Door of the Church: The Sacrament of Baptism is often called The door of the Church, because it is the first of the seven sacraments not only in time (since most Catholics receive it as infants) but in priority, since the reception of the other sacraments depends on it. It is the first of the three Sacraments of Initiation, the other two being the Sacrament of Confirmation and the Sacrament of Holy Communion. Once baptized, a person becomes a member of the Church. Traditionally, the rite (or ceremony) of baptism was held outside the doors of the main part of the church, to signify this fact. The Necessity of Baptism: Christ Himself ordered His disciples to preach the Gospel to all nations and to baptize those who accept the message of the Gospel. In His encounter with Nicodemus (John 3:1-21), Christ made it clear that baptism was necessary for salvation: Amen, amen I say to thee, unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. We will write a custom essay sample on My Baptism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For Catholics, the sacrament is not a mere formality; it is the very mark of a Christian, because it brings us into new life in Christ. Baptism of Desire: That doesnt mean that only those who have been formally baptized can be saved. From very early on, the Church recognized that there are two other types of baptism besides the baptism of water. The baptism of desire applies both to those who, while wishing to be baptized, die before receiving the sacrament and Those who, through no fault of their own, do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, but who nevertheless seek God with a sincere heart, and, moved by grace, try in their actions to do His will as they know it through the dictates of conscience (Constitution on the Church, Second Vatican Council). Baptism of Blood: The baptism of blood is similar to the baptism of desire. It refers to the martyrdom of those believers who were killed for the faith before they had a chance to be baptized. This was a common occurrence in the early centuries of the Church, but also in later times in missionary lands. The baptism of blood has the same effects as the baptism of water. The Form of the Sacrament of Baptism: While the Church has an extended rite of Baptism which is normally celebrated, which includes roles for both parents and godparents, the essentials of that rite are two: the pouring of water over the head of the person to be baptized (or the immersion of the person in water); and the words I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. The Minister of the Sacrament of Baptism: Since the form of baptism requires just the water and the words, the sacrament, like the Sacrament of Marriage, does not require a priest; any baptized person can baptize another. In fact, when the life of a person is in danger, even a non-baptized personÃ¢â¬âincluding someone who does not himself believe in ChristÃ¢â¬âcan baptize, provided that the person performing the baptism follows the form of baptism and intends, by the baptism, to do what the Church doesÃ¢â¬âin other words, to bring the person being baptized into the fullness of the Church. Infant Baptism: In the Catholic Church today, baptism is most commonly administered to infants. While some other Christians strenuously object to infant baptism, believing that baptism requires assent on the part of the person being baptized, the Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, and other mainline Protestants also practice infant baptism, and there is evidence that it was practiced from the earliest days of the Church. Since baptism removes both the guilt and the punishment due to Original Sin, delaying baptism until a child can understand the sacrament may put the childs salvation in danger, should he die un-baptized. Adult Baptism: Adult converts to Catholicism also receive the sacrament, unless they have already received a Christian baptism. (If there is any doubt about whether an adult has already been baptized, the priest will perform a conditional baptism. ) A person can only be baptized once as a ChristianÃ¢â¬âif, say, he was baptized as a Lutheran, he cannot be rebaptized when he converts to Catholicism. While an adult can be baptized after proper instruction in the Faith, adult baptism normally occurs today as part of the Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA) and is immediately followed by Confirmation and Communion. The Effects of the Sacrament of Baptism: My Baptism free essay sample The Sacrament of Baptism is often called The door of the Church, because it is the first of the seven sacraments not only in time (since most Catholics receive it as infants) but in priority, since the reception of the other sacraments depends on it. It is the first of the three Sacraments of Initiation, the other two being the Sacrament of Confirmation and the Sacrament of Holy Communion. Once baptized, a person becomes a member of the Church. Traditionally, the rite (or ceremony) of baptism was held outside the doors of the main part of the church, to signify this fact. The Necessity of Baptism: Christ Himself ordered His disciples to preach the Gospel to all nations and to baptize those who accept the message of the Gospel. In His encounter with Nicodemus (John 3:1-21), Christ made it clear that baptism was necessary for salvation: Amen, amen I say to thee, unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. We will write a custom essay sample on My Baptism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For Catholics, the sacrament is not a mere formality; it is the very mark of a Christian, because it brings us into new life in Christ. Baptism of Desire: That doesnt mean that only those who have been formally baptized can be saved. From very early on, the Church recognized that there are two other types of baptism besides the baptism of water. The baptism of desire applies both to those who, while wishing to be baptized, die before receiving the sacrament and Those who, through no fault of their own, do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, but who nevertheless seek God with a sincere heart, and, moved by grace, try in their actions to do His will as they know it through the dictates of conscience (Constitution on the Church, Second Vatican Council). Baptism of Blood: The baptism of blood is similar to the baptism of desire. It refers to the martyrdom of those believers who were killed for the faith before they had a chance to be baptized. This was a common occurrence in the early centuries of the Church, but also in later times in missionary lands. The baptism of blood has the same effects as the baptism of water. The Form of the Sacrament of Baptism: While the Church has an extended rite of Baptism which is normally celebrated, which includes roles for both parents and godparents, the essentials of that rite are two: the pouring of water over the head of the person to be baptized (or the immersion of the person in water); and the words I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. The Minister of the Sacrament of Baptism: Since the form of baptism requires just the water and the words, the sacrament, like the Sacrament of Marriage, does not require a priest; any baptized person can baptize another. In fact, when the life of a person is in danger, even a non-baptized personÃ¢â¬âincluding someone who does not himself believe in ChristÃ¢â¬âcan baptize, provided that the person performing the baptism follows the form of baptism and intends, by the baptism, to do what the Church doesÃ¢â¬âin other words, to bring the person being baptized into the fullness of the Church. Infant Baptism: In the Catholic Church today, baptism is most commonly administered to infants. While some other Christians strenuously object to infant baptism, believing that baptism requires assent on the part of the person being baptized, the Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, and other mainline Protestants also practice infant baptism, and there is evidence that it was practiced from the earliest days of the Church. Since baptism removes both the guilt and the punishment due to Original Sin, delaying baptism until a child can understand the sacrament may put the childs salvation in danger, should he die un-baptized. Adult Baptism: Adult converts to Catholicism also receive the sacrament, unless they have already received a Christian baptism. (If there is any doubt about whether an adult has already been baptized, the priest will perform a conditional baptism. ) A person can only be baptized once as a ChristianÃ¢â¬âif, say, he was baptized as a Lutheran, he cannot be rebaptized when he converts to Catholicism. While an adult can be baptized after proper instruction in the Faith, adult baptism normally occurs today as part of the Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA) and is immediately followed by Confirmation and Communion. The Effects of the Sacrament of Baptism: Baptism has six primary effects, which are all supernatural graces: 1. The removal of the guilt of both Original Sin (the sin imparted to all mankind by the Fall of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden) and personal sin (the sins that we have committed ourselves). 2. The remission of all punishment that we owe because of sin, both temporal (in this world and in Purgatory) and eternal (the punishment that we would suffer in hell). 3. The infusion of grace in the form of sanctifying grace (the life of God within us); the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit; and the three theological virtues. 4. Becoming a part of Christ. 5. Becoming a part of the Church, which is the Mystical Body of Christ on earth. 6. Enabling participation in the sacraments, the priesthood of all believers, and the growth in grace. Question: What is Baptism? Christian denominations differ widely on their teachings about baptism. Some believe baptism accomplishes the washing away of sin. Others consider baptism a form of exorcism from evil spirits. Still others teach that baptism is an important step of obedience in the believerÃ¢â¬â¢s life, yet only an acknowledgment of the salvation experience already accomplished baptism itself has no power to cleanse or save from sin. The following takes a look at the latter perspective called Believers Baptism: Answer: A general definition for the word baptism is Ã¢â¬Å"a rite of washing with water as a sign of religious purification and consecration. Ã¢â¬ This rite was practiced frequently in the Old Testament. It signified purity or cleansing from sin and devotion to God. Since baptism was first instituted in the Old Testament many have practiced it as a tradition yet have not fully understood its significance and meaning. In the New Testament, the significance of baptism is seen more clearly. John the Baptist was sent by God to spread the news of the coming MessiahÃ¢â¬âJesus Christ. John was directed by God (John 1:33) to baptize those who accepted his message. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s baptizing is called Ã¢â¬Å"a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Ã¢â¬ Mark 1:4 (NIV). Those baptized by John acknowledged their sins and professed their faith that through the coming Messiah they would be forgiven. Baptism then is significant in that it represents the forgiveness and cleansing from sin that comes through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. The Purpose of Baptism: Water Baptism identifies the believer with the Godhead Ã¢â¬â Father, Son Holy Spirit. Ã¢â¬Å"Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Ã¢â¬ Matthew 28:19 (NIV) Ã¢â¬ ¢Water Baptism identifies the believer with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection. Ã¢â¬Å"When you came to Christ, you were circumcised, but not b y a physical procedure. It was a spiritual procedurethe cutting away of your sinful nature. For you were buried with Christ when you were baptized. And with him you were raised to a new life because you trusted the mighty power of God, who raised Christ from the dead. Ã¢â¬ Colossians 2:11-12 (NLT) Ã¢â¬Å"We were therefore buried with Him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life. Ã¢â¬ Romans 6:4 (NIV) Ã¢â¬ ¢Water Baptism is an act of obedience for the believer. It should be preceded by repentance, which simply means Ã¢â¬Å"change. Ã¢â¬ It is turning from our sin and selfishness to serve the Lord. It means placing our pride, our past and all of our possessions before the Lord. It is giving the control of our lives over to Him. Peter replied, Each of you must turn from your sins and turn to God, and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. Then you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Those who believed what Peter said were baptized and added to the churchabout three thousand in all. Ã¢â¬ Acts 2:38, 41 (NLT) Ã¢â¬ ¢Water Baptism is a public testimony the outward confession of an inward experience. In baptism, we stand before witnesses confessing our identification with the Lord. Ã¢â¬ ¢Water Baptism is a picture representing profound spiritual truth: Death Ã¢â¬Å"I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me. Ã¢â¬ Galatians 2:20 (NIV) Resurrection Ã¢â¬Å"We were therefore buried with Him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the father, we too may live a new life. If we have been united with Him like this in His death, we will certainly also be united with Him in His resurrection. Ã¢â¬ Romans 6:4-5 (NIV) Ã¢â¬Å"He died once to defeat sin, and now he lives for the glory of God. So you should consider yourselves dead to sin and able to live for the glory of God through Christ Jesus. Do not let sin control the way you live; do not give in to its lustful desires. Do not let any part of your body become a tool of wickedness, to be used for sinning. Instead, give yourselves completely to God since you have been given new life. And use your whole body as a tool to do what is right for the glory of God. Romans 6:10-13 (NLT) Cleansing Ã¢â¬Å"And this water symbolizes baptism that now saves you also Ã¢â¬â not the removal of dirt from the body but the pledge of a good conscience toward God. It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Ã¢â¬ I Peter 3:21 (NIV) Ã¢â¬Å"But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God. Ã¢â¬ I Corinthians 6:11 (NIV) Questions On Baptism Friday, October 10, 2003 Home Greetings! Initiation of a non-Christian into the Roman Catholic Church is celebrated in a Rite called baptism. In this rite, a person is either immersed in water, or sprinkled with water by another Christian who says, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. What makes a baptism valid? Baptism is valid so long as water was used with the Trinitarian formula (See Mt 28:19 for the Trinitarian formula, and John 3:5 for the necessity of water). In an emergency, even tears or saliva could be used where running water is not present. Catholics believe that all people who have received water baptism in the Trinitarian formula are mysteriously united to the Churc h, and indwelt with the grace of Jesus Christ. What is grace? Grace is Gods favor, and more than this, it is the very life of God within a person through the Holy Spirit. With grace, three dispositions, or virtues are infused in the soul: faith, hope and love. God cannot co-exist with sin, and when we turn away from God, we can sin so badly as to cut off this flow of divine life within us. Catholics call this mortal sin, referring to the notion of deadly sin we find in 1 John 5:17. Yet, even when we sin mortally, the Council of Trent states that faith lingers in the soul to draw us back to Christ. Only blasphemy of the Holy Spirit an ongoing and deliberate rejection of the free gift of grace can damn us. We can trust teh one who started the work of salvation in us through baptism to bring it to completion. Is Baptism necessary for salvation? The Second Vatican Council affirms that the grace of baptism is necessary for salvation. Yet, the Council speaks of salvation outside, but not apart from the Church. Catholics believe that the grace of baptism is given through the rite itself, but is also provided to those who, through no fault of their own, have either never heard the Gospel, or heard the Gospel in a distorted manner so that they were unable to accept it. Many theologians (myself included) argue that anyone who has not actively rejected the Gospel as properly understood may be under the saving grace of baptismal grace. The Church has always maintained that the Old Testament prophets are counted among the saints in heaven. The Council of Trent affirmed that even prior to baptism, a grace called prevenient grace draws a person to baptism. Furthermore, the Church always taught that there is such a thing as baptism by desire. Traditionally, baptism of desire was used to refer to martyrs who were murdered while preparing for the rite of baptism. These various doctrines have lead theologians to the conclusion that there is saving grace available without strictly receiving water baptism. Yet, for a believer in Jesus Christ, it would make no sense to reject water baptism, since Christ himself was baptized and taught his disciples to baptize. In the early church, baptism was a public witness to becoming a Christian, and often a person was placing their life on the line by receiving the sacrament. To reject water baptism and claim to believe in Jesus is a contradiction, and in this sense, baptism is necessary for all believers. However, knowing that prevenient grace draws the sinner to the sacrament, many theologians today argue that there are two types of saving faith, and one depends on the other. Primordial faith is a trust in a vague and fuzzy awareness of divine holy mystery and openess to transcendant experience that goes beyond language. This faith is what begins the salvation process in us, and it is this grace that is spoken of when we say the grace of baptism is necessary for salvation. Many theologians since Karl Rahner argue that we are all born with the gift of such grace, even as we are all effected by original sin. If we respond to this grace, we seek language to describe the experience, and primordial faith is then translated into fiducial faith, which is the belief in a particular creed, doctrine, and set of religious practices. For the Catholic Christian, fiducial faith expresses itself and becomes actualized in cooperation with Christ through the sacraments. However, the non-Catholic may very well be saved by fiducial faith expressing primordial faith in a different cultural context. Who performs a baptism? Typically, a baptism is performed by a priests, but in an emergency, any Christian who has already received baptism can perform the rite. Catholics recognize the baptisms of other Christian demonimations as valid, so long as water was used, and the Trinitarian formula was followed. Catholics consider the rite of baptism to be a sacrament. Sacraments are outward signs of internal grace instituted by Christ and preserved in the Apostolic tradition. Catholics believe that Christ, himself, acts in each sacrament, so that even if a sacramental rite is performed by the worst sinner, the sacrament is valid. How often can baptism be received? Because it is the first step of initiation, baptism is only received one time in life, and Catholics do not believe anyone who has received a valid baptism needs to repeat it, even if the rite was performed before a person was fully mature, or the rite was by an imperfect person, or in a manner that was hasty or sloppy. Indeed, Catholics see it as a lack of faith to repeat baptism. At the same time, Catholics do bless themselves with holy water as they enter a church as a constant reminder of baptism. What are the effects of baptism? Perhaps the effects of baptism are best understood by looking at the symbolic meaning of the rite. Water is a natural symbol of birth, life, and cleanliness. It symbolizes birth as a mothers water is broken. It symbolizes life as we need it for nourishment. It symbolizes cleanliness as we bathe daily with water. Water also symbolizes death, as we can drown in water. In Judaism, ritual baths and purifications symbolized that we were making ourselves presentable to God, the most high and most holy and pure being of all. According to the New Testament, the baptism of John, who preceded Jesus was a baptism of repentance. The word for repentance in Greek means conversion, and is rooted in the notion of turning a stiff neck. John seemed to use water baptism as a symbolic action to convey the notion of the hope to one day be immersed in the Spirit to be cleansed from sin to live a new life. Johns preaching was eschatological and forward looking, and painted a picture of cosmic conflict between good and evil. Johns baptism looked for the day when the Spirit would be poured forth like a river on the people to produce a change of heart. Jesus received the baptism of John, and many Bible scholars point to this incidence as evidence of a historical person named Jesus. According to the criteria of embarrassment, the early church would have no reason to invent this encounter, since the action implies John is greater than Jesus and that Jesus needed to repent. Many believers in Christianity are raised to believe that Jesus was baptized by John in order to provide us an example. However, this oversimplifies the issue, and implies that Jesus was play acting. Even a perfect person can and would have turning points in life if that person is fully human. A conversion experience does not always involve turning from sin to virtue. Rather, like a moth becoming a butterfly, a conversion experience can be growth from one stage of human development to another. The New Testament is clear that Jesus grew as a human person (See Luke 2:40). By receiving the baptism of John, Jesus reveals that he has fully entered the human condition. Like us, in his humanity, he longed to be immersed in the Holy Spirit and to grow and change. John preached that there would be one who come after him who would baptize with fire and Spirit. Having received the baptism of John, the growth or conversion that Jesus displayed was to begin to live as though the fullness of Gods reign was breaking into our world here and now, already present, but not fully present yet! There is some evidence in the New Testament that Jesus continued the ministry of baptism after John, and may have even rivaled John for a period (See John 4:1). However, where John was an ascetic preaching hell-fire and brimstone, Jesus preached that the reign of God was breaking in through mercy upon the marignalized. It is not that Jesus made no mention of hell. However, when he does mention hell, it is always in the context of the rigidly unforgiving, or those who commit heinous sins that hurt other people. For Jesus, it appears that baptism was transformed from a symbolic act that looked forward to a day of immersion in the Spirit, to a symbolic rite that made the Spirit present. In Jesus and his disciples, baptism truly became a rite of initiation for those who choose in the here and now to live in the reign of god breaking into our reality. By accepting the baptism of Jesus, one was chosing to live here and now as though God is your only king, and to trive for perfection. After the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus, baptism took on new meaning. Under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, Saint Paul called baptism an immersion in the death and resurrection of the Lord (See Romans 6:4 and Colossians 2:12). The author of 1 Peter refers to baptism as a cleansing. With Saint Augustine int he fourth century, the emphasis on the notion of bap tism as cleansing became critical in his debates with a monk named Pelegius. Pelegius believed that Christ saved us by offerring an example of perfection that we chose to follow by our own inherent goodness. Those who rejected Christ and refuse to imitate him are simply evil. Pelegius taught a crass works righteousness. Augustine, profoundly aware of his own sinfulness, countered that he could not even want to follow Christ if God had not given him the gift to desire Christ. Augustine, relying on Saint Paul, believed that we are saved by grace, and that grace enables us to imitate Christ. Augustine developed the concept of original sin to explain what he felt Paul was saying when Paul says all people are sinners due to Adams sin (see Romans 5:12). Augustine argued that grace is a completely free gift given to us while we are sinners, and through the gift, we are made righteous, with baptism symbolizing cleanliness and new birth. As a demonstration that he was interpreting the Scriptures correctly, Augustine wrote to Pelegius appealing to common tradition asking if what he was saying were not true, why does the Church baptize infants? So, the effect of baptism is that we die to our sinful selves to rise with him. Grace, the very life of Christ, is infused in the soul by the one who lives today! This new life is experienced as rebirth in water and Spirit. We are immersed int eh Holy Spirit so that live as sons of daughters of the great King of the universe, whose reign of peace and justice is breaking into the world through Christ acting in us. Why do Catholics baptize infants? Acts 10 speaks of the entire family of Cornelius, and the whole household, including his servants, receiving Peter and the Apostles to eventually become baptized. Catholics believe that the episode indicates the possibility that children were baptized within the New Testament period, since it is likely that Cornelius had children. Yet, there is no direct and unquestionable proof that infants were baptized in the New Testament. Many Protestant Christians argue that the symbolism of conversion and change is lost by performing baptism on infants, and that such batisms should be considered invalid. Catholics believe that in the early church, adult baptism was the norm as the Church reached out to new members. However, we saw above that Saint Augustine argued against the works righteousness of Pelegius by appealing to the already wide-spread and ancient tradition of infant baptism. Infant baptism may or may not not perfectly allow the recipient to experience grace as conversion. Yet, Catholics accept in faith that conversion is occurring even in the infant. For many Catholics, infant baptism is a response of gratitude to God for a child, and a celebration of birth. Parents naturally want to share their faith and culture with their children. As a rite of intitiation, baptism knits a person into that web of relationships that forms the Church the Body of Christ. What Christian parent would not seek to have their child knit into this web of relationships? On a deeper theological level, Catholics speak of a real transformation taking place in the infant where all guilt of original sin is removed, and grace is infused in the soul conforming the child to Christ. Through baptism, a person is born again, and the effects of the sacraments last eternally! By offering the rite to an infant, we are emphasizing that grace is an absolutely free gift, not even earned by our desire for conversion or our intellectual undertsanding of what we receive. This may confuse many Protestants, who believe that Catholics teach works righteousness. The Catholic Church holds as infallible, according to Scripture, the local council of Orange, and the Ecumenical Council of Trent that salvation is by grace alone. However, Catholics believe that with new birth comes growth, and that with baptism, Christs life life is infused inthe soul to produce faith and works. Faith without works cannot save, and works without faith cannot save. Yet, the whole process of salvation is initiated as a free gift of Christ. See my essay Justification: Protestant or Catholic for more detail on this subject. In the New Testament, Paul speaks of laying hands on people after baptism, and James speaks of annointing people. The word Christ literally means annointed. Catholics generally believe that in the sacrament of confirmation (laying on of hands and annointing), a person is confirmed in the faith. This second sacrament completes initiation in the Catholic Church and is closely connected theologically to baptism, though separated by years in time for many Catholics. Adult converts receive the two sacraments together. This is usually done in young adulthood, and provides an opportunity for a similar experience to Protestant young adult conversion at baptism. Why do Catholics use the Trinitarian formula, and not the name of Jesus Personally, I am not sure that God considers the name of Jesus alone as an invalid baptism. However, there are denominations and churches separated from Rome who baptize in the name of Jesus only because they reject the doctrine of the Trinity. We saw above that the Trinitarian formula for baptism is Scriptural in Matthew 28:19. We know from early Church writings that the Trinitarian formula was used from most ancient times, and the doctrine was accepted as the correct interpretation of scripture by the world-wide Church at several Ecumneical Councils. Thus, Catholics believe that the Trinitarian formula is revealed through Scripture and Sacred Tradition to be a if not the correct way to do baptism. Since the issue arose late historically, and was clear attempt to break the unity of the Church, Catholics do require a new baptism for those who join s from a community that did not use the Trinitarian formula. Why do Catholics sprinkle instead of immersing? Immersion is the proper way to do baptism to convey the full symbolism of the sacrament. Sprinkling in the early church was only used for emergencies, such as impending death. As the Church expanded into Northern Europe, it is highly probable that cold weather caused Christians to turn more often to sprinkling. Irish missionaries may have carried the practic e back southward. The Church defends that baptism by sprinkling is valid. At teh same time, Vatican II called for a renewal and retrieval of the meaning of sacramental gestures so that the fullness of what was conveyed in the New Testament is mediated in the signs. I have seen more and more Catholic churches building baptismal fonts large enought to immerse an adult. In the future, I expect immersion to once again become the norm. One final point When John began baptizing, he warned his Jewish siblings that God could make children of Abraham from the stones. Receiving his baptism of repentence was useless if one was not changed by it. God always respects our freedom, and we are always free to reject and act against the grace that is given us. We do this when we sin. Catholics believe that God initiates the salvation as an absolutely free and unmerited gift that can start in an infant. Catholics believe that Christ acts in the sacrament, so that we can never say that baptism does not have an effect. Christ promised to act in every valid baptism. Even Adolf Hitler (who was baptized Catholic) was changed by the sacrament. (Think how much worse he may have been if his life were never touched by grace! Yet, knowing that every baptism has an effect on the recipient, and trusting individually that the One who died for me and began a work for me in baptism wants to bring it to completion, I must respond to him! Johns warning to the children of Abraham is still true for Christians. We must, by Gods continued outpouring of grace, receive the Lordship of Christ and allow his will to shape our lives and continually change us. While baptism always has an effect, not everyone who has been bapized is absolutely assured slavation.